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So, for example. For example, water, water. If I wanna raise that one degree celsius, so if I wanna raise that one degree celsius, I would have to put in, I would have to put in a certain amount of, I would have to put in a certain amount of heat, which would be different than, say if I had sand.
Let's say this is, let's say this is sand.
This is sand. I have trouble picking colors.
Specific Heat Capacity (cp)
So this is sand right over here. I have to do a better job of drawing sand. If I wanna raise that one degree celsius, I would need a different amount. It actually turns out that I need less heat, I need less heat to raise the sand one degree celsius than I need to raise the temperature of the water or one gram of the water one degree celsius.
So let's say this is a gram of water and this is a gram of sand. I'm going to need more heat here to raise this one degree celsius than to raise that. That's because water has a higher specific heat. So higher, higher, relatively higher specific heat. Specific heat. And sand, or at least relative to water, has a lower specific heat. Lower specific heat. So two ways you could think about it.
Let me write this. Lower, lower specific, specific heat. Two ways to think about it.
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If you wanna raise one gram of each of them one degree celsius, you're gonna have to put more energy into the water than you're going to have to put into the sand. Or the other way around, if you put the same amount of energy into both, you're gonna raise the temperature of the sand a lot more than you would raise the temperature of the water. And water, actually, its specific heat has a special name and this is a name that you have seen before.
The specific heat of water is called the calorie. Specific, specific heat of water is called the calorie. And you have seen this word before. When you've wanted to cut calories, when you've looked at the back of nutritional labels on food.
There's one clarification. The calorie that people talk about when they're talking about nutritional labels or how many calories are actually in food, that's actually kilocalories. So if you see, if someone hands you a, let's say a bowl of ice cream. Let me draw a bowl of ice cream here. So if someone hands you a bowl of ice cream right over here and they tell you that this is calories. Let me write that down. This is calories. If we're thinking of it in terms of specific heat, it's actually kilocalories.
So there's a couple of ways that you could think about kilocalories. You could think about it as, this is, this ice cream has enough energy to raise, to raise kilograms of water one degree celsius. You could also view it as the amount, well actually if you wanna think of it in more human terms, most humans are roughly grown people are between 50 kilograms or 60, 70 kilograms roughly over there. You could say 50 kilograms of water.
Actually a grown male might be composed of about 50 kilograms of water and then there's obviously other things that make up their weight, I'm just approximating. You would raise it 10 degrees celsius. And that's actually happening in our body. Your body heat is actually caused, partially, the energy from food, some of it is to process your movement and the different functions of your muscles and the brain and all the things you body does, and some of it is just producing heat. Sometimes as a byproduct of that movement and sometimes, frankly, just for the sake of producing heat.
The specific heat can be defined and measured for gases, liquids, and solids of fairly general composition and molecular structure. These include gas mixtures, solutions and alloys, or heterogenous materials such as milk, sand, granite, and concrete, if considered at a sufficiently large scale. The specific heat can be defined also for materials that change state or composition as the temperature and pressure change, as long as the changes are reversible and gradual.
Thus, for example, the concepts are definable for a gas or liquid that dissociates as the temperature increases, as long as the products of the dissociation promtly and completely recombine when it drops. The specific heat is not meaningful if the substance undergoes irreversible chemical changes, or if there is a phase change , such as melting or boiling, at a sharp temperature within the range of temperatures spanned by the measurement.
The specific heat of a substance is typically determined according to the definition; namely, by measuring the heat capacity of a sample of the substance, usually with a calorimeter , and dividing by the sample's mass. The specific heat of gases can be measured at constant volume, by enclosing the sample in a rigid container. On the other hand, measuring the specific heat at constant volume can be prohibitively difficult for liquids and solids, since one often would need impractical pressures in order to prevent the expansion that would be caused by even small increases in temperature.
Instead, the common practice is to measure the specific heat at constant pressure allowing the material to expand or contract as it wishes , determine separately the coefficient of thermal expansion and the compressibility of the material, and compute the specific heat at constant volume from these data according to the laws of thermodynamics. In chemistry, heat amounts were often measured in calories. Confusingly, two units with that name, denoted "cal" or "Cal", have been commonly used to measure amounts of heat:.
While these units are still used in some contexts such as kilogram calorie in nutrition , their use is now deprecated in technical and scientific fields. When heat is measured in these units, the unit of specific heat is usually. In either unit, the specific heat of water is approximately 1. The temperature of a sample of a substance reflects the average kinetic energy of its constituent particles atoms or molecules relative to its center of mass. However, not all energy provided to a sample of a substance will go into raising its temperature.
Quantum mechanics predicts that, at room temperature and ordinary pressures, an isolated atom in a gas cannot store any significant amount of energy except in the form of kinetic energy. Thus, heat capacity per mole is the same for all monoatomic gases such as the noble gases.
That is, approximately,. On the other hand, a polyatomic gas molecule consisting of two or more atoms bound together can store heat energy in other forms besides its kinetic energy. These forms include rotation of the molecule, and vibration of the atoms relative to its center of mass.
These extra degrees of freedom or "modes" contribute to the specific heat of the substance. Namely, when heat energy is injected into a gas with polyatomic molecules, only part of it will go into increasing their kinetic energy, and hence the temperature; the rest will go to into those other degrees of freedom.
In order to achieve the same increase in temperature, more heat energy will have to be provided to a mol of that substance than to a mol of a monoatomic gas. Therefore, the specific heat of a polyatomic gas depends not only on its molecular mass, but also on the number of degrees of freedom that the molecules have. Quantum mechanics further says that each rotational or vibrational mode can only take or lose energy in certain discrete amount quanta.
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