Refinery Engineering: Integrated Process Modeling and Optimization

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Refinery engineering integrated process modeling and optimization. SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this document? Why not share! Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Technology. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Abdulfattah Zayed , -- hyses model of fcc unit.

Mohammed Alaa El-Din. Shahril Saidin. Kuber N Kushwah ,. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Refinery engineering integrated process modeling and optimization 1. Liu Refinery Engineering 3. Related Titles Ancheyta, J. Nevertheless, authors, editors, and publisher do not warrant the information contained in these books, including this book, to be free of errors.

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Library of Congress Card No. KGaA, Boschstr. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form — by photoprinting, microfilm, or any other means — nor transmitted or translated into a machine language without written permission from the publishers. Registered names, trademarks, etc. V Foreword by Steven R. VI Contents 1. VIIContents 2. VIII Contents 4. IXContents 5. X Contents 6. XI Foreword by Steven R. Cope ExxonMobil Refinery Manager, Baytown, Texas Petroleum refining is one of the most important, exciting and challenging in- dustries on the face of the earth.

Examples include state-of- the-art catalyst systems, complex reactor designs, sophisticated computer control hardware and software, and advanced safety and environmental controls. This same typical refinery has dozens of different crudes and other feedstocks to choose from and dozens of products to maximize or minimize based on consumer demands and global market-place economics. In addition to daily decisions about feedstocks and products, there are also hundreds of decisions to be made each day about operating temperatures, pressures, unit feed rates, catalyst addition rates, cycle times, distillation cut points, product specifications, inventory levels, etc.

This process requires complex computer modeling to help select feedstocks and product slates and troubleshoot and optimize the performance of individual refinery processes e. And eventually, all of these individual parts have to be pulled together to feed a linear program LP model capable of optimizing the overall refinery.

Based on my review, I believe this book provides a solid introduction to inte- grated refinery process modeling and optimization, using the tools and techniques currently employed in modern refineries. This book and associated coursework would be a highly desirable investment by any engineering student considering a career in petroleum refining. Small improvements in the design and operation of a refinery can deliver large economic value. Crude petroleum is a natural material containing thousands of chemical compounds. The refinery converts the crude into a wide range of products from transportation fuels and petrochemical feedstocks to asphalt and coke.

Computer-Aided Chemical Process Engineering Group

All of these products must meet demanding specifications while the refinery stays within tight environmental constraints. Computer models are used routinely today to model petroleum refining processes. Engineers use them to design new refineries, to improve the operation of existing refineries, to make decisions on purchasing crude, and to optimize the planning of production.

The ability to accurately model each step in the refining process is the key to optimizing the performance of the integrated refinery. Modeling a refinery is challenging because crude petroleum consists of thousands of chemical compounds. The refinery takes the large molecules in crude oil and cracks them into the smaller molecules of transportation fuels. It must also carry out chemical reactions to tailor the composition of products to meet specifications.

These reactions take place through a complex set of reaction pathways. For most of my career, I have worked on the development of computer models of chemical processes. Today very good commercial software systems exist that enable engineers to build and use sophisticated models for refinery simulation and optimization. But these tools are mainly used by experts. This book by Professor Liu and his colleagues represents a major advance in enabling engineers who are not experts to develop and use state-of-the-art computer models for the simula- tion and optimization of integrated refinery reaction and fractionation processes.

The book is very well organized and systematic. It starts in the first chapter by showing how to represent the thermodynamic and physical properties of crude Evans petroleum and the complex materials that comprise the intermediate streams in a refinery. The next two chapters cover the major separation units in a refinery: the atmospheric distillation unit ADU and the vacuum distillation unit VDU.

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The final three chapters cover the most important chemical conversion units together with their product fractionation systems. These include the fluid catalytic cracking FCC process, the continuous catalyst regeneration CCR reforming process, and the hydroprocessing units. Each chapter follows the same pattern starting first with a description of the unit, methods to organize and use the pertinent data from the refinery, and then the workflows to construct a rigorous model using existing commercial software.

Finally, the chapter concludes with strategies to tune the models to match performance followed by case study examples, and the discussion of other applications of the models such as for refinery production planning. It covers very practical problems: how to work with real data, how to construct the right level of detail for the problem and the data available, and how to tune the model to actual plant data. Individuals who want to contribute to the development of refinery process modeling or explore new directions will find the extensive review of existing work valuable.

This book will also be valuable to industrial practitioners and to academic chemical engineers by exposing them to refinery process modeling and optimization and enabling them to solve realistic problems. The book takes this work from a technology used mostly by experts to a tool that refinery engineers can use in their everyday work. XV Preface Overview Petroleum refining continues to be a major contributor in the production of transportation fuels and chemicals.

Current economic, regulatory and environ- mental concerns place significant pressure on refiners to optimize the refining process. New product demands have encouraged refiners to explore alternative processing units and feedstocks. Consequently, refiners have invested in many new technologies to upgrade and optimize the refining process. Despite these changes, refiners still face the same issues as before: selecting the crude feedstock on the basis of feasibility and profitability, finding the optimal process conditions for the given feedstock while meeting refinery constraints , and understanding how changes in a given unit cascade upstream and downstream to other units in the refinery.

In the past, refiners have traditionally relied on ex- perienced process engineers and guesswork to tackle these issues. This approach is not only unreliable, but the growing tide of retiring industry professionals and the prohibitive costs of test runs at the refinery make it quite infeasible. Hence, detailed modeling and optimization of refinery processes becomes increasingly critical and beneficial. Modeling commercial-scale refinery reaction processes can be quite difficult for the novice model developer.

Refinery reaction processes, such as fluid catalytic cracking FCC , catalytic reforming and hydroprocessing including hydrotreating and hydrocracking , involve the complex interplay of thermodynamic, kinetic and transport phenomena. In the literature, many models are available that simplify the operation of these units into standard reaction units that are familiar to under- graduate students.

While these models can be useful for a given experimental trial of plant operation, it is difficult to generalize these simple models for modern large-scale processes. In addition, these simple models do not account for complex process phenomena and often cannot be integrated into the overall workflow since they may be customized solutions using FORTRAN, etc. Consequently, when the person responsible for the development of model is somehow inaccessible, the model falls by the wayside and the gained knowledge is lost.

Hence, the use of familiar and standard commercial software tools provides the refinery a path to reap the benefits of rigorous modeling and optimization, and to retain experi- ence developed during the same process. XVI Preface The primary goal of this text is to present a rational methodology for the integrated modeling and optimization of key reaction and fractionation processes in the modern refinery. We consider catalytic reaction processes, such as fluid catalytic cracking FCC , catalytic reforming and hydroprocessing, together with upstream fractionation units, such as atmospheric distillation unit ADU and vacuum distillation unit VDU , as well as downstream fractionation units following the catalytic reaction processes.

need Refinery Engineering-Integrated Process Modeling and Optimization - A-F. Chang

A rational methodology for modeling and optimization must balance the demands of detailed kinetic models with the availability of plant data. It is unproductive to develop and use kinetic models that we cannot support by using available plant data for the purposes of refinery modeling and optimization. A secondary goal of this text is to serve as a guide for developing models for units whose details vary from those presented in this work. Using commercial software tools, in lieu of customized software, is very beneficial to engineers at- tempting to replicate the same work.

This guide is very important to ensure that models are used continually throughout the refining lifecycle and can be integrated into the overall workflow of the refinery. There have been several recent books published by a number of authors. Kaes develops several key workflows and industrial modeling guides for various fractionation units throughout the refinery.

However, Kaes does not include any guides for modeling refinery reactors rigorously and uses only black-box reactors for important refinery processes. Our text addresses this oversight by tackling both reaction and fractionation units in an integrative framework with step-by-step guides. Fahim and his co-authors give a broad overview of a wide range of refinery processes; however, they do not address the model development in any significant detail that is readily applicable by the industrial practitioners.

Further, their models often rely on simple and inaccurate correlation-based yield models to represent complex kinetic phenomena. They provide some guides to using commercial software for refinery modeling, but these guides are not useful in an industrial context. In contrast, our text presents industrially relevant hands-on, step-by-step guides and case studies.

Ancheyta gives a detailed review of the existing modeling literature on refinery reaction processes in conjunction with modeling results and a few case studies.


Such a review monograph is useful for researchers working towards building new models and approaches for refinery reaction process modeling in general. In addition, Ancheyta presents complex equations and sophisticated models that require special modeling expertise to deploy successfully in the refinery. This approach is not well-suited for a novice model developer or plant engineer using commercial software tools. Practical models that we can use in the refinery must address thermodynamics and physical properties for building significant reaction and fractionation models.

In addition, these models must also predict fuel product properties and are applicable to production planning. Our text addresses these practical concerns of model users by focusing on the commercial software that is easy to use, deploy and integrate into the existing refinery workflows. In addition, we present hands-on workshops that will help justify the use of these models on a regular basis for the rating and optimization of integrated refinery reaction and fractionation systems from plant data.

Scope of Textbook The purpose of this text to guide senior-level undergraduates, graduate students, and industrial practitioners how to quantitatively model key refinery reaction and fractionation processes. In addition, this text contains advanced modeling topics such as kinetic network calibration that will prove useful to researchers and practitioners alike. After following the procedures in this text, the reader will be able to: 1 identify key data required for building reaction and fractionation models with commercial software; 2 filter extensive data available at the refinery and use plant data to begin calibrating available models; 3 extend model to include key fractionation sub-models; 4 provide a sound and informed basis to understand and exploit plant phenomena for process optimization to improve XVIII Preface yield, consistency and performance of a given unit; and 5 apply models in an overall refinery context through refinery production planning based on linear programming LP.

We present the topics in a logical progression from basic refinery thermo- dynamics and physical property predictions to detailed guides for modeling complex reaction and fractionation units. Chapter 1 introduces the reader to the basics of dealing with the thermodynamics and physical property predictions of hydrocarbon components in the context of process modeling. Chapters 2 and 3 use the key concepts of fractionation lumps and physical properties to develop detailed models and workflows for atmospheric ADU and vacuum VDU distil- lation units.

Chapters 4, 5 and 6 are largely self-contained and the reader can read each of these chapters independently of other chapters. These chapters discuss the modeling and optimization of FCC, catalytic reforming and hydroprocessing units. These materials include relevant spreadsheets, guides and sample simulation files for all models developed in the workshops throughout this text. We hope that this text allows both academia and industrial practitioners to understand, model and optimize complex refinery reaction and fractionation systems.

The goal of all modeling and optimization exercises presented is to improve yield, consistency, profitability and performance of a given unit and the refinery as a whole. All rights reserved. XXI Acknowledgements It is a pleasure to thank a number of very special persons and organizations that contributed to the preparation of this book.

The idea for this book originated from the doctoral work of the junior authors, Ai-Fu Chang and Kiran Pashikanti. The junior authors would like to thank the members of their advisory committee at Virginia Tech, in particular: Professor Y. Liu, who developed the original idea of the book and was the major advisor, and Professors Luke Achenie, Richey M. Davis and Preston Durrill. He completed his doctoral dissertation on integrated process modeling and product design of biodiesel manufacturing, and refinery reaction and fractionation systems.

The latter was the basis of this textbook. He has worked on several industrial modeling projects, including poly acrylonitrile-vinyl acetate , hydrocracking, and biodiesel. These projects were collaborative efforts between Virginia Tech, Aspen Technology, and industrial manufacturers. He is currently employed by Chevron Phillips Chemical Company. He has worked on several industrial modeling projects on integrated modeling of reaction and fractionation systems, and of carbon-dioxide capture processes. This textbook grows out of his doctoral dissertation on the predictive modeling of fluid catalytic cracking and catalytic reforming processes.

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